Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The short story Girl written by Jamaica Kincaid is a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s compilation of advice, skills, and life experience to her daughter. The mother believes that her offer of practical and helpful guidance will assist her daughter in becoming a proper woman, and gaining a fulfilling life and respectable status in the community. Posed against the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sincere concern for her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s future is Sir WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s superficial affection to his daughters in the novel Persuasion written by Jane Austen. Due to his detailed attention for appearance and social rank, Sir Walter has been negligent to his daughtersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests and fails to fulfill his responsibility as a father. Throughout both literary works, the use of language and tone towards persuasive endeavors reveals the difference in family dynamics and the success of persuasion on the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation. The motherÃ¢â¬â¢s genuine care for her daughter in girl is displayed through her imperative instructions. The mother decides to transfer her domestic knowledge and life experience to her daughter in order to shape her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior from a young age. She gives out detailed instruction on how to Ã¢â¬Å"sew a button, how to hem a dress when the hem coming down to how to iron a khaki shirt so that it does not have a creaseÃ¢â¬ (Kincaid). Although heming a dress is not a difficult chore, the mother emphasizes the its importance since she understands that the appearance of clothing reflects a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Because domestic skills serve as a measurement for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s competence and self-worth, the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to take care of her clothes will indicate her lack of interest in household affair and organizational skills. Through these advice, the mother highlights the importance of house... ...an only find true happiness in marriage with someone who shares similar manners and treasure peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities over their look and status. This is when AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s sensibility allows her to disregard her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasion and become determined to fulfill her love with Wentworth. The persuasive attempts in both literary works produce different results. The effectiveness of the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance to her daughter is questioned since the girl cannot recognize the essence of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson. Despite that, the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s beneficial instruction serves as a standard for the daughter to reflect her future behaviors in order to live up to the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. On the other hand, AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s value of candid expression and lasting relationship dissuades her from obliging to her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s meaningless duty to place her love and interest above to experience fulfillment in life. Persuasion Written by Jane Austen Essay examples -- motherhood, jamaica The short story Girl written by Jamaica Kincaid is a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s compilation of advice, skills, and life experience to her daughter. The mother believes that her offer of practical and helpful guidance will assist her daughter in becoming a proper woman, and gaining a fulfilling life and respectable status in the community. Posed against the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sincere concern for her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s future is Sir WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s superficial affection to his daughters in the novel Persuasion written by Jane Austen. Due to his detailed attention for appearance and social rank, Sir Walter has been negligent to his daughtersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests and fails to fulfill his responsibility as a father. Throughout both literary works, the use of language and tone towards persuasive endeavors reveals the difference in family dynamics and the success of persuasion on the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation. The motherÃ¢â¬â¢s genuine care for her daughter in girl is displayed through her imperative instructions. The mother decides to transfer her domestic knowledge and life experience to her daughter in order to shape her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior from a young age. She gives out detailed instruction on how to Ã¢â¬Å"sew a button, how to hem a dress when the hem coming down to how to iron a khaki shirt so that it does not have a creaseÃ¢â¬ (Kincaid). Although heming a dress is not a difficult chore, the mother emphasizes the its importance since she understands that the appearance of clothing reflects a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Because domestic skills serve as a measurement for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s competence and self-worth, the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to take care of her clothes will indicate her lack of interest in household affair and organizational skills. Through these advice, the mother highlights the importance of house... ...an only find true happiness in marriage with someone who shares similar manners and treasure peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities over their look and status. This is when AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s sensibility allows her to disregard her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasion and become determined to fulfill her love with Wentworth. The persuasive attempts in both literary works produce different results. The effectiveness of the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance to her daughter is questioned since the girl cannot recognize the essence of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson. Despite that, the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s beneficial instruction serves as a standard for the daughter to reflect her future behaviors in order to live up to the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. On the other hand, AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s value of candid expression and lasting relationship dissuades her from obliging to her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s meaningless duty to place her love and interest above to experience fulfillment in life.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: potential and challenges Dennis A. Pitta The University of Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall ? Ponti? cia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract Purpose Ã¢â¬â The purpose of this article is to examine the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) proposition, where private companies can both be pro? table and help alleviate poverty by attending low-income consumers. Design/methodology/approach Ã¢â¬â The literature on BOP was reviewed and some key elements of the BOP approach were proposed and examined.Findings Ã¢â¬â There is no agreement in the literature about the potential bene? ts of the BOP approach for both private companies and low-income consumers. However, further research on characterizing the BOP segment and ? nding the appropriate business model for attending the BOP can provide some answers to this issue. Practical implications Ã¢â¬â The article provides some guidelines to managers as to how they need to adapt their marketing strategies to sell to the BOP market, and what type of partnerships they need to build in order to succeed.Originality/value Ã¢â¬â The article presents a thorough analysis of the key elements involved in the BOP initiative: companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations, characterization of the BOP consumers, and the business model to attend the BOP. Keywords Private sector organizations, Emerging markets, Consumers, Poverty, Disadvantaged groups Paper type Research paper underpin the concept, and refutes its basic premises. Instead of a market of untapped potential, this literature stream sees a ? nancial desert that BOP principles may harm more than help. The BOP may be a less a source of signi? cant pro? ts than a source of serious losses.KarnaniÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis posits that the poor may want the same products as the rich do but by virtue of being poor, they cannot afford them. The poor spend most of their income on food, cl othing, and fuel. For the poor, the mathematics are clear: buying a branded product reduces the funds they must devote to survival. In contrast, Karnani suggests that raising income will alleviate their poverty, provide cost effective products to other consumers, and allow the formerly poor to consume more. Raising their incomes may require that they become producers with stable jobs and wages. Both viewpoints concentrate on the poor but draw different onclusions about how to alleviate their poverty. The two positions also differ in the nature and proper role of industry and government. In light of the differences, the argument would bene? t from empirical data that tests the underlying premises of each viewpoint. Verifying the premises would allow further logical analysis of implications and applications of the concept. In fact, the need for clari? cation is recognized. In the next section, the authors provide some foundations for the most traditional and still dominant approach to market, i. e. the focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"top of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ (TOP).The rest of the article focuses on the Ã¢â¬Å"bottom of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ (BOP); it explores PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition and the opposing viewpoint, reviews key aspects of the BOP initiative Ã¢â¬â companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation; the BOP business model; the role of micro? nance; and the key participants Ã¢â¬â and proposes some implications and challenges for marketing theory and practice, and ? nally some implications for marketers. An executive summary for managers and executive readers can be found at the end of this issue. Introduction The bottom of the pyramid (BOP) approach to earning corporate pro? ts has gained considerable attention in the arketing literature. It has awakened managers to the potential of serving an unserved market and alleviating the level of global poverty while still earning a pro? t. However, the BOP proposition, while clear, appealing, and enlightening has not been accepted in a n unquali? ed manner. One branch of the BOP literature puts forth the elements of the BOP proposition and supports its ? ndings with numerous case studies (Prahalad, 2004). Those studies portray the poor as motivated by similar desires as the rich. They want quality products and any company that can supply those products at he right price will gain their business. Some of the case studies show the strategies for reducing the effective price of products through packaging and developing lower cost sizes. Prahalad and others describe the untapped potential of the BOP, and list strategies that companies may use to tap that potential. An opposing branch of the literature (Karnani, 2007a; Martinez and Carbonell, 2007) analyzes the nature of the BOP market, the applicability of the case studies that The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. emeraldinsight. com/0736-3761. htm Journal of Consumer Marketing 5/7 (2008) 393Ã¢â¬â 401 q Emerald Group Publishi ng Limited [ISSN 0736-3761] [DOI 10. 1108/07363760810915608] 393 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer Marketing Dennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 The Ã¢â¬Å"top of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ customers, and labeled them as Platinum or Gold. In contrast, those with lower to very low LCVÃ¢â¬â¢s earn the value labels, Iron and Lead. They point out that a single Gold or Platinum customer may have a Lifetime Customer Value, many times higher than that of someone in the Iron or Lead tier. Speci? ally, one Platinum customer may be worth more than Ã¢â¬Å"tonsÃ¢â¬ of those labeled as Lead. Conceptually, identifying value and potential pro? t deriving from the top of the pyramid is straightforward and represents traditional organization goals. Companies can use standard market segmentation and product differentiation to satisfy these tiers. Dealing with these customers requires profess ionalism, but the normal market research processes, product development, channels of distribution, promotion, and credit functions should result in success. Thus, Zeithaml and her coauthors showed companies how to use their tried and trusted arketing approaches to maximize effectiveness and pro? tability. The key is to serve those customers most likely to generate pro? ts instead of losses. The justi? cation is clear: companies have limited resources and should concentrate their efforts where the returns will be the highest. They demonstrated the value at the top of the pyramid (TOP) and shared strategies for serving those customers while discouraging or even Ã¢â¬Å"? ringÃ¢â¬ the lower, money-losing tiers. For pro? t seeking companies, the customer pyramid approach is appropriate and allows them the best chances to survive in typically competitive markets.Not surprisingly, the Ã¢â¬Å"top of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ (TOP) approach is at the heart of Western business practice. Tradition ally, businesses require a set of four conditions to operate successfully in a market segment. The segment must be identi? able, measurable, substantial, and accessible. In Western economies, business and communication infrastructures are developed suf? ciently to meet all of the criteria for most segments. Arguably, while all four conditions are important, the substantial and accessible elements are the more important. For a pro? t-making ? rm, the segment must be large enough to generate pro? s. If that condition is satis? ed, it is critical that consumers in the segment be reachable by communications media to receive promotional messages. In addition, they must be physically accessible to distribution alternatives. From a pro? t perspective, companies concentrate on those areas in which they can be effective, namely segments that meet all four requirements. Serving the TOP inevitably means a focus on pro? ts instead of revenues, and pro? ts are central to Western business. In pra ctice, over time, numerous Western companies have ceded market share or entire markets to others when the pro? ts eclined. One prime example is the computer memory chip market. Memory chips were once produced exclusively in the US and Europe. As Asian competitors entered the market, they cut prices at the expense of pro? ts. Their goal was to make chips; the US ? rms wanted to make pro? ts. Consequently, US ? rms abandoned the marketplace and searched for targets that were more pro? table. European and US companies still make chips. Their dominance of the microprocessor markets is the result of the strategic quest for pro? tability. However, European or US players do not dominate the huge market for memory chips.To be accurate, the US companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ actions are not driven solely by the desire to earn pro? ts. Their organization, corporate culture, and internal processes require economies of scale, which demand exploiting the richest target markets. In many cases, successful compa nies have evolved into ef? cient machines whose foundation is high structural cost. Thus targeting the most lucrative segments is vital for continued success. Pro? t, in its simplest form, is the surplus of revenue over costs. If companies can drive costs low enough, it is conceivable that prices might be low enough for the poor to fford and high enough to generate a pro? t. However, earning a pro? t with such customers today takes enormous effort. More important, companies that exist today may be unable to drive costs low enough to succeed. In fact, costs are only one part of the equation. The underlying problem is that companies are ill equipped to serve the poorest customers. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what the poor want and donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what bene? ts they seek in products and services. In addition, companies may not know what mix of product bene? ts, price, quality, promotion, and distribution works best for this segment.However, the focus on pro? ts has led to success. Recognizing the importance of pro? ts, Zeithaml and her colleagues have worked on the customer pyramid concept (Zeithaml et al. , 2001). Without using the term, they focused explicitly on the Ã¢â¬Å"top of the pyramid,Ã¢â¬ those consumers with the highest lifetime customer value (LCV). By dividing the customer pyramid into four sections called customer pro? tability tiers, they identi? ed the Ã¢â¬Å"best,Ã¢â¬ most pro? table The Ã¢â¬Å"bottom of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ approach PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition In the book The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty through Pro? ts, C.K. Prahalad (2004), provided that initial conceptualization that had been missing in marketing thought. His book succeeded in planting the perception that consumers with low levels of income could be pro? table customers. He painted a picture of the double bottom line: social goals combined with the business objective, pro? t (Harjula, 2005). Coincidently, he appealed to the best motives among those at the top of the pyramid. By citing examples of successful attempts to empower the poor and share in global wealth, he kindled the imagination of those who want the world to be a better place. This is an ppealing proposition: Ã¢â¬Å"low-income markets present a prodigious opportunity for the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s wealthiest companies Ã¢â¬â to seek their fortunes and bring prosperity to the aspiring poorÃ¢â¬ (Prahalad and Hart, 2002). PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition is an invitation to company executives, politicians, managers of non-pro? t organizations, and ordinary citizens, to view poverty as something that might be alleviated rather than inevitable. He presents a wellreasoned conceptual view Ã¢â¬â supported with case study data Ã¢â¬â of how companies might mine pro? ts from the lowest economic strata (Hart, 2005; Prahalad, 2004). Much of the reatment centers on the nature and scope of pro? ts and the collective wealth of consumers at the bottom of the pyramid (B OP). The main thesis of PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s work rests on the idea that the potential growth for many multinational (MNC) and medium sized companies does not rest on the small highincome market in the developing world. Instead, its source is the mass low-income people that are joining the market for the ? rst time. This idea goes against the following 394 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer Marketing Dennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo MarshallVolume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 assumptions, which, according to Prahalad, most MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s make: it is not pro? table for them to attend the BOP due to their high cost structure; the low-income segment cannot afford the products and services they sell; and only developed markets value innovation and will pay for new technology. These arguments imply that governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s) should take care of the low-income segment. According to Pra halad, marketers who believe that the BOP is a valuable unserved market also believe that even the poor can be good customers.Despite their low level of income, they are discerning consumers who want value and are well aware of the value brands favored by more af? uent consumers. This school of thought recognizes the obstacle that low income creates. It postulates that if companies take the correct steps and devote suf? cient resources to satisfying the needs of the BOP, they can overcome barriers to consumption. This view rests on PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s calculations of the immense size of the global BOP, in his view, a $1. 3 trillion dollar market. Prahalad recognizes that serving the low-income sector requires a commercial strategy in response to the needs of hose people; to succeed, other players have to get involved Ã¢â¬â mainly local and central government, ? nancial institutions, and NGOs. He proposes four key elements to thrive in the low-income market: 1 creating buying power; 2 shaping aspirations through product innovation and consumer education; 3 improving access through better distribution and communication systems; and 4 tailoring local solutions. opportunities and poverty eradication through pro? ts may set unrealistic expectations for business executives (McFalls, 2007). Second, the traditional timelines for achieving social goods versus pro? s differ (Harjula, 2005). Businesses may use a ? ve-year horizon as their benchmark for returns. In contrast, social goals like reducing smoking and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors may take generations. Thus, rather than viewing the poor primarily as consumers, this group suggest a focus on this segment as producers, i. e. potential entrepreneurs that can improve their economic situation by increasing their income level. Companies must be willing to invest time, resources and training to insure that the producers create products with some barriers to entry and a reasonable level of productivity.They need to do so to avoid the trap of producing commodities that are easy to duplicate and, thereby, keep the poor, poor. Otherwise, alleviating poverty becomes very unlikely. Reconciling the two opposing viewpoints It is clear from the previous discussion that ? ndings in the literature about the nature, scope, and value of the BOP proposition are mixed. More research is needed on this topic to gain an accurate view of the presence and extent of opportunities at the bottom of the pyramid. The following sections examine some key elements of the BOP initiative that have been, acknowledged in the literature; speci? ally, the ? rmsÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations to attend the BOP market, the characterization of the BOP consumers, and the BOP business model. The latter element focuses on three major issues: the role of micro? nance, the importance of establishing alliances among different actors (e. g. for-pro? t ? rms, NGOs, governments), and how for-pro? t companies need to adapt their marketing mix to attend the BOP pro? tably. The opposing viewpoint The second literature thread emerged years later in the discussion and represents a thoughtful attempt to verify the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) concept.It questions the ease with which companies may tap the BOP and whether pro? ts exist there at all (Karnani, 2007a). First, this group dismisses the published calculations about the size of the BOP and its wealth. They describe the economic size of the BOP as considerably smaller than PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s estimate and cite the inherent subsistence problem: the poor spend 80 percent of their income on food, clothing, and fuel. There is hardly anything left to spend after that (Karnani, 2007b). Second, they argue that it is very unlikely that companies will be able to attend the BOP market pro? tably.In fact, the costs of serving this segment can be very high. BOP customers are usually much dispersed geographically; they are very heterogeneous, which reduces the opportunities for obtainin g signi? cant economies of scale; and their individual transactions usually represent a low amount of money. In addition, consumers at the BOP are very price sensitive, which, again, makes pro? tability a dif? cult goal to achieve. Those factors show that the ideal that both pro? ts and social good can result from serving the BOP is questionable. First, each goal has different motivations, demands, and echanisms to satisfy and they can be contradictory. The differences between business realities and development imperatives are not easy to reconcile. Some recent case study work suggests that the early language around the inclusive capitalism idea that emphasizes unlimited business FirmsÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to attend the BOP market A comprehensive examination of the BOP approach requires ?rst an understanding of why for-pro? t companies engage in such an initiative. The literature suggests two main motivations that companies have to attend the BOP market: 1 they can convert this segmen tÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing power into ro? ts; and 2 they can bring prosperity to the poor, and thus alleviate poverty. ? For example, in the 1970s, Nestle was able to contribute to social progress while developing a competitive advantage and making pro? ts in Moga, a district in India. With the purpose ? of establishing local and diverse sources of milk, Nestle built many refrigerated diaries and then sent its trucks to collect product while providing ? nancing, nutritional supplements, and assistance and training to the farmers. With this action, ? Nestle increased its milk production and the suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ roductivity, improved the quality of the product and ? processes, and increased the penetration of other Nestle products in the region. In turn, farmers raised their standard ? of living; Nestle was able to pay higher prices, and farmers were then able to obtain credit. A second case illustrates how a focus on the BOP can be an important strategic goal, with two dimensions: pro? t ability and corporate social responsibility. Masisa is a leading company in the production and trade of wood boards for furniture and interior architecture in Latin America. It has 395The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer Marketing Dennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 established the goal of generating 15 percent of the revenues from inclusive businesses, i. e. the bottom of the pyramid, before 2012. Under their de? nition, inclusive businesses must be pro? table, and socially/environmentally responsible. They expect to help improve the standard of living for low-income people by facilitating their participation in the value chain as suppliers, distributors, or other element of the hannel, and by providing them with access to products and services that can help them improve their socio-economic condition. cooperatively owned items like a television, a telephone, an electric g enerator, medical services, or even something to help make products for sale. Managing that sum for the common good presents a major dilemma: community welfare versus individual choice. People in the BOP would need a high sense of community involvement and consumer education to make responsible choices. A non-pro? t community action organization or a socially conscious business would be very helpful in marshalling cooperation.However, too many of the poor make poor choices like spending money on tobacco instead of food for their children. Even if this optimistic level of potential purchasing power exists, harnessing it for pro? t will be extremely dif? cult. One further concern questions this premise. Traditionally, serving the poor was the role of charities, not for pro? t, and other non-governmental organizations. Much of the excitement that the BOP proposition has generated stems from the inclusion of pro? t making companies in the process. The thought is that pro? t will be a po werful goad toward achieving success.Pro? t is clearly an incentive but beyond the cases cited in PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s work, there is little proof that companies can make the shift. More empirical data would aid the process of developing purchasing power. Purchasing power and pro? tability Karnani (2007a) notes that BOP concept rests on a fuzzy de? nition of the target market. It is dif? cult to ? nd an article in the BOP literature that does not cite the now popular ?gure: four billion. Four billion originally referred to those people who primarily live in developing countries and whose annual per capital income is under US$1,500 per annum.Some of the literature takes as an article of faith that the BOP exists and earns that level of income. The perception is that individually the consumers are poor but together they represent massive purchasing power. However, authors de? ne the BOP income level using several standards, which obscures its true nature. For example, Hammond et al. (200 7) consider the bottom of the pyramid as composed of people with per capita incomes below $3,000 in local purchasing power. Prahalad (2004) states that there are more than four billion people with per capita income below $2 per day at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates ($750 per year).This is a signi? cant reduction in previous estimates: four billion people with per capita income below $1,500 per year ($4 per day) (Prahalad and Hart, 2002), or four billion people with per capita income below $2,000 per year ($6 per day) (Prahalad and Hammond, 2002). Other contemporary sources like the World Bank estimated the number at 2. 7 billion, in 2001. However, other researchers characterize the World Bank projection as an overestimation, with some experts estimating the poor at 600 million (The Economist, 2004). The differences range from four billion to 600 million, a large enough gap to cause oncern. The three reported income levels range from $2-6 per day. The $2 per day criterion is con sistent with previous literature in development economics. It is important to understand that how to alleviate poverty depends on the de? nition of poverty. Using the $2 per day ? gure presents different challenges than the higher levels: people who earn less than $2 per day have very different needs and priorities than people who earn $4-6 per day. Adopting the higher poverty line obscures these differences (Karnani, 2007b) and overestimates the potential at the BOP.In principle, it is clear that collectively the mass of poor customers do hold wealth. However, an additional problem is that they do not hold it in the right concentrations. If one considers a hypothetical example, the nature of the wealth at the BOP may become a bit clearer. If a village of 1,000 adults earns an average of US$750 per year (the $2 per day ? gure), the gross earnings of the village are signi? cant. However, the question becomes how much remains after satisfying the necessities. Even if an impressive 10 percent of income remains per household, that translates into $0. 0 per day. It is dif? cult to perceive how such small sums might generate pro? ts. Collectively, the village may have $200 per day in Ã¢â¬Å"disposable income. Ã¢â¬ That might translate into community- Poverty alleviation and prosperity to the poor From a social responsibility perspective, there are distinct differences between a market-based approach to poverty reduction and approaches that are more traditional. Traditional approaches often focus on the very poor, proceeding from the assumption that they are unable to help themselves and thus need charity or public assistance.In contrast, a market-based approach starts from the recognition that being poor does not eliminate commerce and market processes: virtually all poor households trade cash or labor to meet a signi? cant part of their basic needs. The latter approach is the one for-pro? t companies have embraced to pursue the BOP initiative. The argument regar ding poverty is that the poor face undeveloped distribution outlets and must pay monopoly prices for the goods they desire. In addition, they are unable to afford the standard quantities and qualities of products offered to richer consumers. This is consistent withHammond et al. (2007), who describe people at the BOP as having signi? cant unmet needs, and being dependent on informal or subsistence livelihoods. They are vulnerable, poorly integrated to the formal economy, and impacted by a BOP penalty under which they pay higher prices for basic goods and services than wealthier consumers. Successful attempts to bring quality products to the poor at affordable prices would overcome the high price of poor distribution (Martinez and Carbonell, 2007). In that sense, it would increase their purchasing power by bringing previously unaffordable goods within their budgets.However, the $2 per day income limit is a signi? cant obstacle and may make this goal impossible to attain. There is som e hope in alleviating poverty but it is more in line with KarnaniÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the poor as producers who are able to boost their income suf? ciently to rise above the bottom of the BOP. The very recent example of ITC Limited outlined the distribution based economic problems faced by poor farmers in India. There are many factors that affect the ? ow of goods and services in and out of rural areas, and thus reduce the rural populationÃ¢â¬â¢s income and quality of life 96 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer Marketing Dennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 (Vachani and Smith, 2008). While the major source of problems was the poor transportation infrastructure, other factors operate to keep disadvantaged groups like poor Indian farmers in poverty. Buyers bully them into accepting Ã¢â¬Å"buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ prices. Ã¢â¬ Moreover, farmers are ignorant of their rights and the m arket value of their crops. In addition, they pay monopoly prices for the items they need.These factors act to keep them at a disadvantage and unable to earn the proper income from their efforts. By addressing farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of information about the current value of their crops, the best seed to use for high yields, proper farming practice, and alternative outlets for their crops, ITC increased their welfare. To accomplish this, ITC set up a parallel distribution system, which led to increases in farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ income and consumption. The effort started at the grassroots with ITC hiring agents already in the ? eld and rewarding them for improvements in farmer welfare and consumption.The company placed computers with satellite based internet connections in each village and taught farmers to use them to assess current crop pricing. ITC guaranteed to match or exceed the prices offered by others. In addition, ITC provided products farmers needed like seed at a discount from the e xisting retailers. There was signi? cant Ã¢â¬Å"missionaryÃ¢â¬ education aimed at allaying the farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s fears of exploitation. After a few farmers tried the system, more of them signed on. The result was increased income, higher satisfaction, more independence, and lower cost to purchase supplies.The example is encouraging and demonstrates the commitment and stamina organizations need to operate at the BOP. ITC set up a private distribution network that was more closely associated with a cooperative than the typical channel. Farmers and grassroots agents who knew their needs very well cooperated to operate the channel and share in its economic bene? ts. In essence, ITC adopted KarnaniÃ¢â¬â¢s model of buying from BOP producers to raise their level of income developing them into pro? table customers. Can companies really generate pro? ts and alleviate poverty at the BOP? This example seems to show that they can.It also shows the extent to which companies will have to re-en gineer their approaches and operations to succeed. There is some data on the changes in the size of the BOP that aid in forecasting the future. Chen and Ravallion (2007) report a decline in the proportion of people living under the poverty line in the developing world over the period 19812004. That represents a reduction of about 0. 8 percent points per year over the period. Separate from the numbers, the question remains, Ã¢â¬Å"Who are BOP customers? Ã¢â¬ Current demographic labels such as Ã¢â¬Å"blue-collarÃ¢â¬â¢ or working-class,Ã¢â¬ fail to capture the extreme level of poverty.As marketers gain more experience with the BOP, it is possible that other useful differentiations may emerge based on speci? c variables, such as behavioral or psychographic. The global distribution of BOP customers adds another factor to consider: culture. The cultures of Latin America, Asia, and Africa differ widely. It is logical that differences in culture will affect future attempts to unders tand the needs of the BOP segments. In general, DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. (2004) ? nd that consumers at the BOP spend a higher portion of their income on consumer goods (50 to 75 percent), as compared to wealthier segments (around 35 percent).These authors also ? nd that, due to their limited and unstable cash ? ow, lowincome consumers tend to shop daily and spend small amounts of money each time. Then too, they are reluctant to buy in places that are located far away from their homes. The ? ndings show that Ã¢â¬Å"stay at homeÃ¢â¬ mothers make most of the purchases and family spending decisions; by doing this, they ful? ll roles as wife, mother, and household manager. Companies currently devote resources to listening to the voice of the customer and are con? dent in their efforts with currently serviced segments. A change of focus to the BOP ill require new techniques, and freedom from Ã¢â¬Å"accepted knowledge. Ã¢â¬ The BOP is so radically different that companies will have to ignore what they know as Ã¢â¬Å"truthsÃ¢â¬ that may not apply anymore. Faulty new product development eradicates the potential for pro? t and unfamiliar product development (NPD) territory increases the risks of failure. Firms can increase their NPD success rates by integrating consumers into the process as boundary spanning team members instead of mere respondents to surveys. Thus, product development will bene? t from the input of customers at the lowest levels of income (Pitta and Franzak, 1997).However, that initiative will be supremely different from current successes. A good example of how companies, NGOs, governments, and other institutions can collaborate in this aspect is the formation of BOP learning laboratories (McFalls, 2007). The laboratories were designed to investigate the complex factors that interact at the BOP as well as opportunities for both sustainable and human development. More initiatives like this one are needed, as well as research on the characteristic s of the BOP consumers. Characterization of BOP consumers A fundamental requirement to attend the BOP market uccessfully is to know deeply the characteristics of the people in this segment. Some academic studies and reports from NGOs have contributed re? ning the understanding of the BOP: how many they are, where they are located, what their income level is, and what some of their characteristics in terms of needs and habits are. According to Hammond et al. (2007), the BOP is concentrated in four regional areas: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. 12. 3 percent of the BOP lives in Africa, 72. 2 percent in Asia, 6. 4 percent in Eastern Europe and the remaining 9. 1 percent lives in LatinAmerica and the Caribbean. Rural areas dominate most BOP markets in Africa and Asia while urban areas dominate most in Eastern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. Estimates of the size of the BOP in US dollars or buying power approximate $1. 3 trillion. The Asia m arket has a buying power of $742 billion, Latin America market is $229 billion, the Eastern Europe market $135 billion and Africa $120. The BOP business model In spite of the opposing viewpoints in the literature regarding the extent to which there is a business opportunity at the BOP, there is agreement that serving the low-income sector ro? tably requires a different business model (Chesbrough et al. , 2006; Prahalad and Hart, 2002). Prahalad and Hart (2002) state Ã¢â¬Å"doing business with the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s four billion poorest people Ã¢â¬â two thirds of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population Ã¢â¬â will require radical innovations in technology and business modelsÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, the market at the BOP requires a 397 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer Marketing Dennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 combination of low cost, good quality, sustainability, and pro? ability (P rahalad and Hart, 2002). As a result, for-pro? t ? rms need to understand how the BOP segment differs from upper tiers, and adapt the marketing approach to meet the characteristics of consumers at the bottom. PrahaladÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration on the bottom of the pyramid requires a sea change in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to business. Attempts to reap pro? ts from the BOP using current marketing techniques will fail. Failure will result because the products are too expensive or complicated, are not available in small enough quantities or sizes, or are simply not what the poor want. The BOP is not low hanging fruit.It is a market with potential, and achieving that potential will require costly effort and innovative strategies (Seelos and Mair, 2007). Even with a completely new management approach, evidence suggests that pro? ts at the bottom of the pyramid may be elusive (Karnani, 2007a). The literature suggest that the three most critical aspects in developing a new business model to serve the BOP are the access to credit, the establishment of alliances, and the adaptation of the marketing mix. The following subsections address these issues. still in its early stage in countries like Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina.Most of the banks that have participated in micro? nance are large commercial banks in search of new and attractive markets. The main reasons for commercial banks to attend the BOP have been: . the strong competition among large banks; . the evidence by NGOs supporting the BOP initiative; . the social responsibility dimension; . the opportunity to diversify their business operation; and . the possibility of working together with other institutions, like NGOs and governments. According to Westley (2007), by the end of 2005, there were 30 commercial banks in Latin America oriented to the microentrepreneurs.The establishment of alliances There is recognition that serving the BOP requires the involvement of multiple players, including private companies, go vernments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), ?nancial institutions, and other organizations Ã¢â¬â e. g. communities Ã¢â¬â (Prahalad and Hart, 2002). By infusing the pro? t motive into value creation, the hope is that private companies will take the leading role in serving the BOP and, thus, the purpose of alleviating poverty will more likely succeed. Prahalad and Hart (2002) suggest that, among private companies, multinational corporations (MNC) with extensive ? ancial resources are in the best position to lead the process of selling to the poor. However, MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s have built-in weaknesses that limit their potential for success with these consumers. They are simply too large, too rigid and too far from the customer to be effective. Instead of the top down approach that MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s represent (McFalls, 2007; Harjula, 2005), a bottom up process is necessary (Karnani, 2007a). Changing perspectives from top down to bottom up is so complicated that if MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s are to be involved, they may have to create ? exible subsidiaries free from the corporate structure, processes, culture, and assumptions.ITC has succeeded using that model and has done so at the grassroots level. Therefore, more research is needed to ? nd out under which circumstances MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s or other types of private company should lead the BOP initiative. This line of reasoning is consistent with DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. (2004) who, in the context of retailing in Latin America, suggest that smallscale independent supermarkets and traditional stores are more likely to reach emerging consumers than MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s. Likewise, NGOs have been critical in the development of the business model infrastructure in several successful cases of for-pro? t ? rms serving the BOP.For-pro? ts have created sustainability for the technology used (Chesbrough et al. , 2006); NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s, understand peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. In addition, NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s are closer to people at the BOP, and are better prepared to educ ate them. For example, in Uganda, Africa, the NGO Infectious Disease Institute in Kampala collaborated with P? zer by educating people about the causes of AIDS, and how to prevent and combat it. This facilitated P? zerÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative to provide these people access to drugs that combat HIV/AIDS (Chesbrough et al. , 2006). Lastly, the public sector has an important role in developing the BOP proposition.The focus is changing from traditional governmental assistance delivery, to different ways of creating a sustainable environment for aiding the BOP. For example, Micro? nance Microloans are well known and originally seemed like the answer to self-suf? ciency. The concept that a poor consumer could gain a small loan and become a producer contributing to family income and independence is tantalizing. There is evidence that microloans have succeeded in aiding the bottom of the pyramid. There is also evidence that many of the would-be entrepreneurs failed to capitalize on such credit. They got deeper into debt (Karnani, 2007a).Some authors point out that the entrepreneurial skill that can lead to success is rare. Most individuals would rather have a guaranteed income rather than assume the risk that entrepreneurship entails. This adds to the argument that if businesses can create jobs and boost the poorÃ¢â¬â¢s income, then consumption will follow. Those businesses may not be able to obtain outside ? nancing. The BOP segments are not able to generate suf? cient pro? ts to justify a high cost of capital. To reduce the cost of capital, perhaps collaboration with funding sources like the World Bank or other NGO will be necessary.With ?nancial aid, companies trying for the BOP market may be able to succeed. The creation of buying power is one of the key elements that allow low-income segments to reach product and services. Formal commercial credit has been unavailable to this market and the cost of accessing and getting ? nancial services in the informal ? nancial market is enormous. Since the pioneering initiative of Grameen Bank, in the mid of the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, several ? nancial institutions have been very successful in offering ? nancial services to low-income people who were not traditionally served by the formal bank system.Programs for microcredit have characteristics that are speci? c and different from those of the traditional banking sectors. These differences include property and corporate governance of the institutions, characteristics of the consumers, the technology used to manage credit, and the characteristics of the product and service. The growth of the microcredit market has been heterogeneous across countries. For example, in Latin America, the micro? nance industry has had a signi? cant ? growth in countries like Peru, Bolivia and El Salvador but it is 398 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramidJournal of Consumer Marketing Dennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2 008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 the provision of funding and training to entrepreneurs is a way governments can support consumers and producers at the BOP. Another example is engineering supportive tax structures that promote private sector investment in BOP initiatives. distribution makes the poor poorer. Today, with escalating global fuel costs adding to the cost of transportation, the poor face an increasingly rigorous future. The lack of infrastructure serving rural areas also increases prices.For example, in Chile, consumer goods prices in the remote North and South of the country are 20-25 percent higher than the more highly populated central zone of Santiago and Valparaiso (Ferreira and Litch? eld, 1999). The idea of closeness in distribution channels for consumers at the BOP is very important. This means, for example, having stores that are both geographically close and affectively close. In other words, emotional proximity is also very important. A good example is Banco Estado, a stateowned commercial bank, which consumers consider the Ã¢â¬Å"closestÃ¢â¬ to the BOP segment.The reasons are its extensive distribution, its perception of being adaptive to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, its ? exibility, and its position as affectively close. In the context of retailing, DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. (2004) show that the development of personal relationships with the storesÃ¢â¬â¢ personnel has a positive effect on consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ self-esteem and well-being. Pricing for the bottom of the pyramid is, of course, also very critical. The challenge here is twofold. On the one hand, there is the issue of affordability: prices need to be affordable to BOP consumers. Ramaswamy and Schiphorst (2000) emonstrate the challenges in companies trying to serve the poor. In order to achieve affordability, they must reduce the costs of production and simplify the products. On the other hand, ? exibility in payments is also very important. Providing options of how and when low-income consume rs can pay for their products and services constitutes both a challenge and a source of competitive advantage to private companies. To do this, private companies may need the assistance of commercial banks and NGOs as key partners. Some marketing theorists (Karnani, 2007b) view the BOP as a collection of producers rather than consumers.Therefore, innovative payment models, which allow BOP consumers to pay using a marketing exchange model would increase their ability to pay for the things they consume. The ? Nestle milk agricultural exchange model cited above comes to ? mind. In that model, Nestle actually paid farmers for their milk at attractive prices. They could use the money to buy seed at equally attractive prices. It is a small step to consider a more traditional barter system. As long as the barter system offered fair pricing it would present a win-win situation that would help sustain the arrangement. The marketing mixIt is no surprise that serving different market segments may require different marketing mixes. Therefore, for-pro? t ? rms need to understand how the BOP segment differs from upper tiers, and adapt the marketing approach to meet the characteristics of these consumers. Since affordability is at the heart of serving the BOP, product modi? cation will help lower the price and improve affordability. The parallel strategy, reducing product size works in higher customer tiers but has limited usefulness at the lowest levels. In India, unit-use reduced size cachets of shampoo do promote consumption but are not the answer.The higher cost of packaging erodes pro? ts, and the resulting discarded packaging adds to pollution. The problem remains that the customer still has to allocate scarce income to the shampoo. One answer is to create a bare-bones product with fewer product features that the poor can afford. One example, Nirma detergent made in India, highlights a Ã¢â¬Å"poorerÃ¢â¬ product that is affordable. A single entrepreneur created Nirma to compete with Hindustan LeverÃ¢â¬â¢s market leading detergent, Surf. Surf gained market share because it is an excellent product. It has numerous additives that make it effective yet gentle to humans.Its cost was signi? cant. In fact, Nirma does not contain many of the ingredients and safeguards of its rival. It works but can cause blisters on the skin (Ahmad and Mead, 2004). Despite its harshness, the poor embraced it because they could afford it. The implication is that Ã¢â¬Å"research must also seek to adapt foreign solutions to local needsÃ¢â¬ (Prahalad and Hart, 2002). Evidence shows that consumers at the BOP care about branded products, because leading brands are a guarantee of product quality, which is particularly important to this segment because Ã¢â¬Å"the ? ancial loss from an underperforming product is greater for people with limited incomesÃ¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. , 2004, p. 6). However, emerging consumers are not very loyal to speci? c brand names, altho ugh they do not experiment with unknown brands. In practice, they switch among a few known brands (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. , 2004). DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea and colleagues also argue that low-income consumers prefer products in small sizes, even if the perunit cost is higher, because of their income and space constraints. Moreover, too many varieties of products can harm emerging consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing experience. They may eel tempted to buy things they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need or canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford, which can produce a feeling of inferiority or frustration (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. , 2004). Marketers also need to revisit distribution channels also to attend the BOP market effectively. Vachani and SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s (2008) recent work dealing with inclusive distribution has merit as a model for success. In essence, their examples infused a social action philosophy into a business model. One of their focal companies, ITC, demonstrated the vision necessary to discern pro? ts in the future and the det ermination to invest in a new distribution channel as a in-win proposition. Undoubtedly, the high cost of Conclusions and challenges for marketing theory and practice While the picture is not completely clear, the bottom of the pyramid may offer opportunities to create value for both the poor and companies. Early promises of a fortune seem to have been overstated. The degree of wealth present among the poor is much lower than ? rst reported. In addition, that wealth is too fragmented to be tapped under the current business models. It now appears that the basic concept overestimates the role that BOP consumers can play in contributing to company pro? ts.There is still no agreement in the literature about how bene? cial selling to the BOP can be for private companies, or for alleviating poverty. However, there are several elements of the BOP proposition that have been identi? ed as critical to 399 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer Marketing Den nis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 succeed. First, an accurate characterization of the low-income sector Ã¢â¬â both as consumers and as producers Ã¢â¬â is required to understand their needs, perceptions, and behavior, which in urn will help companies to design a better business approach. Second, it is important to recognize that serving the BOP market requires a different business model, one incorporating access to microcredit, the establishment of alliances of collaboration among different types of institutions, and the adaptation of the marketing mix. Ã¢â¬Å"Until companies better understand the needs of emerging consumers and adapt their business models to serve them more ef? ciently and effectively, their growth will be limitedÃ¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea et al. , 2004, p. 3). It is well known that BOP markets involve managing ubstantial challenges in technical and economic infrastructure, education, ? nanc ial resources, and cultural differences. As participants from the economic sectors progress, a number of questions need to be addressed. Gardetti (2005) articulated them clearly. They include: Ã¢â¬Å"How can a company turn its strategy at the BOP into a competitive advantage? What kind of business model will work? How can it build trust in the informal economy? What kind of education do business schools need? How does new technology integrate? How can we develop the educational/ social infrastructure? Moreover, from the viewpoint of egulatory and policy formulation, if entering the markets at the base of the pyramid is a sound choice for both development and business, what does it take to turn this into a reality? Ã¢â¬ Scholarly research, as well as practitionersÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in BOP initiatives, can provide some answers to clarify the true nature and scope of the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. example in India showed its value in distribution and in customer relat ionship management. It will be equally valuable in research, product development, pricing, and promotion. Fourth, pricing is of paramount importance in serving the oor. In a for-pro? t enterprise, consumers must pay for the cost of serving them. Microcredit is one potential solution. It may be a limited solution, useful only to consumers with the skills necessary to manage it. However, innovative exchange models may offer even those without ? nancial management skills a chance to improve their condition. Fifth, given the economies of the BOP, it is likely that if pro? ts come, they will come later rather than sooner. Organizations need to choose a long-term involvement in order to avoid disappointment and a ? nancially ruinous midterm decision to exit.Finally, marketers should understand that some products are simply not suited for the poorest of the poor. Some products of dubious value to this segment, like Armani handbags, or even cheap counterfeits, will have no place at the BOP. More importantly, some products and services related to health care will always be simply too expensive. Altruistic surgeons may care for uniquely disadvantaged patients by donating their time but they are only one part of a surgical team. Even if the hospital and every member of the team donate facilities, their time, and the resources to save a atient, that model is not sustainable as a for-pro? t venture. Similarly, the cost of a ten-day supply of a life-saving antibiotic cannot be reduced realistically using the Ã¢â¬Å"smaller package sizeÃ¢â¬ option. The implication would be either reduced daily doses or fewer full strength doses. Both are likely to breed drug resistant organisms and thereby threaten the life of the patient and society. To remedy this situation, other players like governments and NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s will be important. Many marketers must realize that collaborating with them is important. To be effective, the collaboration must be proactive.Marketers wishing to ser ve the BOP, who recognize the importance of alliances with others, should seek out relationships with both government and NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s. Early and persistent outreach will be valuable in alerting all of the players to each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and in creating an accurate picture of the challenges. Politically, coalitions of organizations with different fundamental objectives are prone to misunderstanding. Often their terminology is similar but the meaning is different. Alternatively, their objectives may be so totally different that they are fundamentally foreign to one another.If the goal is poverty eradication at a pro? t, all the players must collaborate. The goal may be so dif? cult and achieving effective teamwork is essential. Implications for marketers In general, if pro? t-seeking companies plan to serve the BOP, numerous factors will have to change. First, marketers will have to approach the BOP in a novel manner different from any they used in their prior successes. The BOP is mostly unknown territory. They may have to reinvent themselves or create divisions with substantial independence. If the old segmentation rules that worked at the TOP no longer apply, either will the product development, sales, pricing, distribution policies, and management. In addition, the pro? t objectives and revenue goals will have to be changed. Those who are not prepared to address the sea change in marketing approach should avoid entering this market. Second, simply modifying products and selling them is a path to failure. Success will depend on knowing the BOP intimately. Currently the BOP is terra incognita in terms of segments and their needs. To succeed, marketers must be able to differentiate different income segments and their value. Within the various BOP de? itions, there are three apparent segments, Ã¢â¬Å"under $2 per dayÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"$4 per dayÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"$6 per dayÃ¢â¬ . The needs and incomes of the segments seem to differ enough to indicate t hat they be treated differently. Marketers need to know which ones to serve and how to serve those successfully. Third, in order to understand the voice of the BOP consumer, companies need grass roots sources of intelligence. Collaborating effectively with agents Ã¢â¬Å"on the groundÃ¢â¬ who have direct contact with relevant BOP segments is vital. Moreover, companies must train those agents to seek ? information that will help serve those customers.The Nestle References Ahmad, P. S. and Mead, J. (2004), Hindustan Lever Limited and Project Sting , Darden Business Publishing, Charlottesville, VA. Chen, S. and Ravaillon, M. (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004Ã¢â¬ , Policy Research Working Paper 4211, World Bank, April. Chesbrough, H. , Ahern, S. , Finn, M. and Guerraz, S. (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"Business models for technology in the developing world: the role of non-governmental organizationsÃ¢â¬ , California Management Review, Vol. 48 No. 3, Spri ng, pp. 47-62. 400 The quest for the fortune at the bottom of the pyramid Journal of Consumer MarketingDennis A. Pitta, Rodrigo Guesalaga and Pablo Marshall Volume 25 Ã · Number 7 Ã · 2008 Ã · 393 Ã¢â¬â401 DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea, G. , Stengel, E. A. and Goebel-Krstelj, A. (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"Six truths about emerging-market consumersÃ¢â¬ , Strategy and Business, Vol. 34, pp. 2-12. (The) Economist (2004), 13 March, p. 84. Ferreira, F. G. H. and Litch? eld, J. A. (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Calm after the storms: income distribution in Chile, 1987-1994Ã¢â¬ , World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 509-38. Gardetti, M. A. (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"A base of the pyramid approach in ArgentinaÃ¢â¬ , Greener Management International, Vol. 51, pp. 65-77. Hammond, A. L. , Krammer, W.J. , Katz, R. S. , Tran, J. T. and Walker, C. (2007), The Next 4 Billion. Market Size and Business Strategy at the Base of the Pyramid, World Resource Institute, International Finance Corporation. Harjula, L. (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"Tensi ons between venture capitalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ and business-social entrepreneursÃ¢â¬â¢ goals: will bottom-of-the pyramid strategies offer a solution? Ã¢â¬ , Greener Management International, Vol. 51, pp. 79-87. Hart, S. L. (2005), Inclusive Capitalism: The Unlimited Business Opportunities in Solving the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Dif? cult Problems, Wharton School Publishing, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Karnani, A. 2007a), Ã¢â¬Å"The mirage of marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: how the private sector can help alleviate povertyÃ¢â¬ , California Management Review, Summer, Vol. 49 No. 4, pp. 90-111. Karnani, A. (2007b), Ã¢â¬Å"Misfortune at the bottom of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ , Greener Management International, pp. 99-110. Martinez, J. L. and Carbonell, M. (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Value at the bottom of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ , Business Strategy Review, Autumn, pp. 50-5. McFalls, R. (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Testing the limits of Ã¢â¬Ëinclusive capitalismÃ¢â¬â¢: a case study of the South Africa HP iCommunityÃ¢â¬ , T he Journal of Corporate Citizenship, Vol. 28, Summer, pp. 85-98. Pitta, D. A. and Franzak, F. 1997), Ã¢â¬Å"Boundary spanning product development in consumer markets: learning organization insightsÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 235-49. Prahalad, C. K. (2004), The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty through Pro? ts, Wharton School Publishing, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prahalad, C. K. and Hammond, A. (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"Serving the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor pro? tablyÃ¢â¬ , Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80 No. 9, pp. 48-57. Prahalad, C. K. and Hart, S. L. (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"The fortune at the bottom of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ , Strategy and Business, Vol. 26, January, pp. 54-67. Ramaswamy, E. A. and Schiphorst, F.B. (2000), Ã¢â¬Å"Human resource management, trade unions and empowerment: two cases from IndiaÃ¢â¬ , The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 664-80. Seelos, C. and Mair, J. (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Pro? table bus iness models and market creation in the context of deep poverty: a strategic viewÃ¢â¬ , Academy of Management Perspectives, November, pp. 49-63. Vachani, S. and Smith, N. C. (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"Socially responsible distribution: distribution strategies for reaching the bottom of the pyramidÃ¢â¬ , California Management Review, Vol. 50 No. 2, Winter, pp. 52-84. Westley (2007), Commercial Banks in Micro? nance: BestPractices and Guidelines for Project Design, Monitoring, and Evaluation, IADB, MSM Ã¢â¬â 138. Zeithaml, V. A. , Rust, R. T. and Lemon, K. (2001), Ã¢â¬Å"The customer pyramid: creating and serving pro? table customersÃ¢â¬ , California Management Review, Vol. 43 No. 4, Summer, pp. 118-34. Further reading Anderson, S. N. (1994), Ã¢â¬Å"Unions/management create collaborative cultureÃ¢â¬ , Communication World, Vol. 4 No. 1. Corresponding author Dennis A. Pitta can be contacted at: [emailÃ protected] edu To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: [emailÃ protect ed] com Or visit our web site for further details: www. emeraldinsight. com/reprints 401
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Big Lots Application Page About/ Company Profile Big Lots is a company known for its ability to bring big closeout deals to its customers. Over the course of thirty years, they have helped shape the discount retail industry. Due to their constant and massive growth, there are many Big Lots jobs available. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to see why anyone would want to begin his or her Big Lots career, considering the Big Lots mission is to help not only customers, but employees and stockholders as well. Their base of operations is located in Columbus, Ohio, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to travel all the way out there to fill out a Big Lots application. Hours of Operation Most store locations are open 9:00 AM-9:00 PM, Monday- Sunday. During hours of operation, it is possible to visit a store and apply for jobs at Big Lots. When filling out a free application in person, it is sensible to look your best in order to impress the managers you may speak to, even when going in to grab an application and introducing yourself. Advice on Application Process If possible, it is best to complete a Big Lots application in person, and to make sure to ask for the manager upon application form completion. Some managers may even give you an interview for a Big Lots job on the spot, especially if you take the time to look presentable, have a positive, friendly attitude, and turn in a direct application. During the search for a job it is also a good idea to carry around copies of your resume, and in most cases evenShow MoreRelatedNews Feed Essay977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto do big crazy things. Right, so you wanna actually evolve in a way where youre working with your community and making steps and learning. 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This simply means you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to spend much with the help of the tips provided in this article. But the little issues with applications is that unlike websites that have pages that easily show up on search results, the profile pages of applications do not show up in search results just as web pages show up. So the big question is, what can youRead MoreArticle On Data Mining With Big Data1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCritique-1 Submission by Jyothikiran Nandanamudi (Class ID: 25) Ashok Yaganti (Class ID: 46) Article: Data Mining with Big Data (Paper-1) This paper addresses the complications being faced by Big Data because of increase in the volume, complexity of data and due to multiple sources, which produces large number of data sets. With the increase of big data in different fields like medicine, media, social networking etc., there is a need for better processing model which can access the data at the rateRead MoreSecurity Vulnerability Of A Computer System984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave to be aware of these threats and keep up to date with all the latest threats and issues because if they do not have to be aware of these threats so there could be a great loss to an organization. An organization could be update their systems profiles if there are all systems are not working properly and have any kind of problem because some of the systems are vulnerable in the organization. Definition of Security Vulnerability The security vulnerability is a random detects which is open in theRead MoreInformation And Communication Technologies ( Ict )1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere is hardly a person, today who is not touched by computers and computing. But, if you think about it, you would probably say just the opposite only a generation ago! The rise of the computer is one of the big achievements of the age, and no matter what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings are on technology nobody can deny that it touches our lives in many ways every day. Just how do computers serve as information and communication technologies (ICTÃ¢â¬â¢s)? The advances in the levels of interactivity of ICTÃ¢â¬â¢s have beenRead MoreEssay on Profile of a Person1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages10/16 First Year Writing Clash Of Cultures There are a lot of people around Belmont University with different concepts, different goals, different experiences, different cultures, but most important, different methods of thinking. When I realized that I would need to write a profile of someone else, I thought it would be the easiest essay that I have ever done. Contrary to my expectations, I realized that to write someone elses profile is kind of hard, because it is not only a simple thing suchRead MoreThe Impact Of Facebook On A Cyber World1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFacebook per month and half of them log into their account in a given day, and average user has about 130 contacts (Mustafa). And now the number is triple higher only after 2 years. The company potential valuation up to $100 billion in 2012, and keep growing. The success of Facebook is undeniable, but the company still very young and try to figure it out how it will become and make profits. The history of Facebook begin on February 4, 2004 a Harvard University student Mark Zuckerberg launched wwwRead MoreWhat Do You Want Your Brand Identity?1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesget a hold of is your brand identity. Branding is one of the basic aspects of online marketing, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s also one of the most important, if not the most. What do you want your customers to think of when they hear or read your brand online? Most companies and entrepreneurs tend to lose focus on this matter, especially if they are eager to Ã¢â¬Å"get byÃ¢â¬ and make a name for themselves straightaway. However, establishing your brand identity should not be overlooked as it would build the foundation for your
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Operations Management and Management Science Case Study Capacity Planning New Balance Athletic Shoes Summary James Davis is the president and general manager of New Balance Athletic Shoes. The Boston, Massachusetts based company began producing corrective shoes and arch supports in 1906. New Balance garnered a reputation for quality specialty footwear when in the 1950s it began producing running shoes for men. It is the beginning of 1978 and Mr. Davis has a number of important decisions to make regarding the future of his growing company. In recent years the demand for running shoes has experienced explosive growth. The increasing popularity of the sport of running requires James Davis to carefully evaluate the accuracy of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Adidas and Nike, being larger more top heavy corporations, will naturally have longer time periods between research and development and product release. We suggest that New Balance take advantage of its smaller size by releasing the types of new products previously detailed at a faster pace than their larger competitors. It is in this area that we feel New Balances demand forecast is flawed. The forecasts short term reliance on current products in the companys shoe line is an error that may cause New Balance sales. As evidenced by the average two year appearance in Runners World ratings, the life span of a running shoe is short. We do not believe that New Balance can rely on the 320 to carry sales until their new trainer is available (1yr.) to gain market share. New Balance needs to rapidly release newly developed, state of the art running shoes prior to both industry leaders to put the company in a position to capture additional market share. In addition to believing that New Balances product mix has been forecasted incorrectly, we also contend that it has been somewhat overestimated. The following alternate demand forecast estimates overall market demand, as well as demand estimates for specific consumer categories. Please take note of the assumptions that were made in theShow MoreRelatedOperations Management Is The Branch Of ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢S Science1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOperations Management is the branch of managementÃ¢â¬â¢s science concerned in studying how to achieve successful management with the day-by-day operations of an organization. This study is dedicated in developing and applying the methods that are necessary to achieve business and operations improvement of the company. You may find operations problems in any area of the company and production and those problems may start in buying the feedstock of the products and go from there to even the distributionRead MoreE Mail, Online Conferencing, And Mobile Phones Have Become Essential Tools For Conducting Business937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinvolve issues such as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy, functional specialties, business processes, and culture. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management: the information systems involve setting organizational strategies, allocating human and financial resources, creating new products and services and re-creating the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information technology: is consists of computer hardware, software, data management technology, and networking or telecommunications technology. 3. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data is can be any character, text, words, numberRead MoreManagement at Work1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCase Study: Management at Work 1. Does the pattern of management developments at GE over the last century seem to reflect the pattern suggested by management theory? Explain your answer. The management developments that GE has formulated over the past century appear to reflect the same sequential pattern that has been suggested by the management theory. GEÃ¢â¬â¢s first organizational innovation was the establishment of their corporate research and development lab in 1900. I believe this innovationRead MoreEssay about Operations Management in Health Care792 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOperations Management in Health Care Operations management is the organizing and controlling of the fundamental business activity of providing goods and services to customers (Encarta, 2005). In the healthcare industry, operations management generally focuses on providing a service of healthcare to patients. An organization has three basic functional areas, and theses are: finance, marketing, and operations (Operations Management, 2004, p.4). Since operations is one of the three basic functionsRead MoreStatement of Purpose for a Career in Computational Finance1041 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe world of Finance is by no means a new concept for me. Watching Ã¢â¬Å"Mad money with Jim CramerÃ¢â¬ videos on cnbc.com for his daily stock picks is a ritual. I would study the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business model, perform very rudimentary fundamental and qualitative analysis on these picks and if its intrinsic value matched the criteria set, I would add it to my portfolio on Investopedia.com. Apart from this, I also spent a considerabl e amount of time researching on various stock picking strategies to further strengthenRead MoreI Had More Interest On Computer Science706 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesinterest on computer science and want learn more on a computer. I shared my view with my brothers for going another college to continue my education in computer science with my brothers because they were a source of funding without them I was not able to continue study. I got a green signal from brothers for supporting my undergraduate study in the capital city. There were only two public colleges offered BSc computer science program and had a huge competition to get in place for study. I had applied oneRead MoreTraditional Consumer Culture : Product Oriented753 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesservices. In consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind, extra services that companies provide equals to Ã¢â¬Å"Free valueÃ¢â¬ . This happens in most of the developing country like China and Korean, where people who provide service seldom ask tips and they get pai d based on how many cases they solved not how many time and effort they spent. For example, when people choose laptops, they care more about the brand reputation, product quality and price, but they will not buy a laptop just because this brand provides better warranty serviceRead MoreBook Review The Principles Of Scientific Management1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssignment: The Principles of Scientific Management Submitted by: Alex Shuler Submitted to: Professor Rick Rantilla Date: June 5, 2013 The Principals of Scientific Management The Principles of Scientific Management is an academic essay written by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911. Frederick Winslow Taylor was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency and is regarded as the father of scientific management. His approach is also often referred to, asRead MoreOld System Of Management Based Largely On Empirical Data1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnecessary to radically change the model of production management, the implementation of other organizational structures, reporting lines, strict observance of technology, precision assignments, reasonable incentives, and so on. Old system of management based largely on empirical data could not provide most of these aspects.Absence of knowledge of the organization of production processes, the optimal sequence of operations and modes of operation of equipment, technical and other standards, personalRead MoreInternational Food and Beverage Management847 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe importance of planning and designing procedures for a food and beverage establishment is essential for a successful establishment. Procedures are the cautions taken to ensure that the operation is running effectively and efficiently to meet demands of the customer, with an effective and efficient operation it may reduce the complication of keeping customer relationships intact with the business. Making good decisions about operational procedures is an important characteristics to ensure that
Thursday, December 19, 2019
In recent discussions on Feminism, a controversial issue has been that the term itself attracts negative attention, despite its endless efforts towards equality for both genders. On one hand, some argue the word should be changed to a more appropriate term that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t attract hostile viewpoints. On the other hand, others argue the word should remain the same, however, people should be educated on the actual intentions of feminismÃ¢â¬âand not base their understandings off of the recent misguided interpretations of the term. Although the awareness of feminism may seem of concern only to a small group of women, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about gender equality. Because of their recent fallacious ignorance towards the term, this generation should make modifications of their knowledge of Feminism and learn that it calls for equal rights for both men and women. Although I grant that all women want gender equality, I still maintain that women are rightfully reluctant to call themselves Ã¢â¬Å"feministsÃ¢â¬ , due to the misinterpretations of the term. One of the most widespread misinterpretations is that it encourages women to participate in Ã¢â¬Å"men bashing/ men hatingÃ¢â¬ . This has caused most of the recent negative opinions that are surrounding feminism. In fear of being labeled as man-haters, women tend to shy away from the term. Several famous celebrities, such as Emma Watson and BeyoncÃ ©, are saying that they support feminism and decided to take on its negativity. In her UnitedShow MoreRelatedThe Series Of The Family Produced By Norman Milton1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe series All in the Family produced by Norman Milton Lear from 1971-1979 is one of the most controversial and groundbreaking television shows ever created. The successful sitcom has covered many touchy subjects involving race, ethnicity, homosexuality, rape, and religious beliefs. Towards the end of the third season, episode 20 which was called Ã¢â¬Å"Archie is BrandedÃ¢â¬ , aired on February 24th 1973 touched many subjects that were heavily debated on the fact of whether or not it was appropriate to airRead MoreAnalysis Of Gloria Steinem s Article Our Revolution Has Just Began 908 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFeminism adheres to all humans, regardless of race, sex, religion or any other defining mark and in order for true equality to be reality, humanÃ¢â¬â¢s as a whole must demand for it. Gloria SteinemÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Our Revolution Has Just Begun,Ã¢â¬ addresses the underlying truths of feminism and its never-ending movement towards total equality. My analysis will focus on SteinemÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments regarding the future, which lie ahead for women as well as feminism itself, these arguments include: the economic benefitsRead MoreGender Inequality And Relevant Social Norms959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesConfronting culture shocks, ideo logical conflicts and shifts, some of them expresses their interest in feminism to me. Thus, I incorporated this theme into our curricular content. In doing so, I hope I can not only teach my students what it means to be a feminist, but also invite them to express their beliefs, values and needs. Similar to the previous session, conceptualizing and examining sexism and feminism also generated a lot of thoughtful discussion, such as the example shown below. Reflecting on myRead MoreThe Resistance Of Female Leadership1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor the discrimination and that further research should be conducted to ferret out possible reasons. This study will fill the gap in the research regarding resistance to female clergy by examining the past to understand the present attitude of anti-feminism. Other researchersÃ¢â¬Ë studies help fill the gap such as that of Oesterheld, F. (2012), refutes the idea of authoritarian paternalism of women in early Christianity; Wallace, G. (2014a), mistranslations; Martin, D. (2013), the leadership of women inRead MoreThe Media And The Platform1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswomen have suffered from the oppression of the patriarchal society we continue to live in today. Giving credit where it is due, I will say we have made an evident and beneficial progression as far as the essentialist views of feminism. There are many ways to promote feminism and emphasize the importance of progressionÃ¢â¬âit is benefi cial for all. There are many ways to promote and encourage the movement as an individual however, having a platform would be more ideal. That being said, many celebritiesRead MoreEssay on Feminism and Modern Feminist Theory1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. While generally providing a critique of social relations, many proponents of feminism also focus on analyzing gender inequality and the promotion of womens rights, interests, and issues. Feminist theory aims to understand the nature of gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations and sexuality. Feminist political activism campaigns on issues such asRead MoreGender Equality And The Movement For Women s Rights On A Global Scale1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthere are two controversial perceptions of the meaning of feminism and what feminists stand for. For many years, feminism is considered a series of mere actions exhorting for only women, which is anti-men and overaggressive. Recently, there is a gradual change in the understanding of what feminism is. It is all about the equality that every living human should be treated regardless of gender, race, religion or class. My essay will analyze in-depth the case study of Emma WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s feminism campaign, HeforSheRead MoreFeminism : Women s Rights On The Grounds Of Political, Social, And Economic Equality897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play Trifles, feminism is portrayed by the female characters in the book as well as the male characters. Feminism is defined as: the advocacy of women s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men (Ã¢â¬Å"FeminismÃ¢â¬ ). The female characters are represented in a way that highlights the best characteristics of females, which in turn gives the reader or viewer a strong sense of feminism. The male characters in the book such as: the police officers and the husband show malesRead MoreEquality Of Men And Women916 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmechetaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Joys of Motherhood (1979) will serve as a lens for African tradition in terms of motherhood and marriage, specifically in Nigeria. The recognition of the issues in African societies such as the controversial traditions surrounding motherhood and marriage helps women in Africa raise awareness on the importance of African feminism. In Ã¢â¬Å"African Womanism: An Afrocentric TheoryÃ¢â¬ (1998), Nah Dove advocates for the importance in understanding the relationship between Europe and Africa in orderRead MoreFeminism : A Feminist Perspective1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesModern Feminism Before we begin, I want you to create a picture in your head. You read that there is going to be a feminist rally in your local city this afternoon. What does your mind picture? Lots of pink IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure. Who is there? Why, a bunch of women, of course! And what could they possibly want this time? IÃ¢â¬â¢ll let you keep that one to yourself. We all know that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, feminism is often seen as a joke. Just a bunch of white women prancing around with signs expressing their angst for
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
A literary review of Thomas Manns `Death in Venice`. This paper analyzes `Death in Venice` by Thomas Manns with an emphasis of how the book and characters parallel the writers own life experience. `This second critic notes Manns use of this method he called myth plus psychology which plots Aschenbachs descent into a chaotic heap where both myth and psychology play equally important roles. (SparkNotes) He describes the idolized Tadzio mythically in the same level and manner as Greek sculpture, the god of love, Hyacint and Narcissus and Platos character Phaedrus. He also likens Aschenbachs cruise into a lagoon in Venice to that across the River Styx in the Underworld, where strange red-haired figures appear and reappear to Aschenbach to symbolize demons, probably also the furies of his moral conscience. As to the psychology part, Aschenbach always has a firm control and repression of his libido through the years of maturity. We will write a custom essay sample on Thomas Manns Death in Venice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But this undue control and denial of something vibrant and powerful underneath merely leads such force to show up in other and indirect ways, per Freudian explanations. These indirect expressions include intense dreams and visions and the worship of a strange god. (SparkNotes) Moreover, this `orgiastic worship` of the strange god (SparkNotes) is likely an epitomizing of the Freudian desire to ultimately abandon oneself to such longing in and through death.`
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Research plan into the history of arranged marriages in Chinese society and outline of possible methods which can be used to analyse other factors also contributing to the marriage decline. Different countries have different customs and traditions in regards to love and marriage. In the western society we live in, the popular assumption about love and marriage is that they are equal, with marriage being a decision based on an individual couple. However in many other societies around the world, marriage acts as an extremely important ritual and the fundamental means of creating bonds between different families or predecessors. Marriage is not only the merging together of common individuals, but the merging of one family to another, in a bond regarded as mutually beneficial to the increase of fortune and power for each side. As an important way of merging bonds between families, the interests of marriage are often considered to be too great to allow young adults to select their own partners. We will write a custom essay sample on Marriage in China or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The establishment of marriage is found in nearly all societies in the world, this fact clearly reflecting the importance of reproductive and sexual functions in human life. In the history of marriage in China, traditionally, Chinese people married hrough the arrangements of their parents or most important family elders. This idea of an arranged marriage, made decision- making and finding a suitable partner, a tactical opportunity for parents to choose a spouse for their child, as someone from whom they felt they could gain social, political or financial benefits in the long term. As Jack. M. Potters book Chinas peasants expresses, The law did not substitute the necessity to form marriages on a basis of love, rather the law takes it for granted that marriages will be formed in a moral Chinese way, in a chinese cultural context and this is not a context which efines romantic love as an element in marriage choice (page191). However after years of control, and with an anti- arranged marriage campaign that began with the New cultural movement, came an increasing public demand for own- choice marriage partnerships and free love. During the peak of the May Fourth era, at a time when the New cultural movement was operating, this marked a significant turning point during which the traditional method of arranged marriage was to be completely threatened and overpowered by the Western ideas of free-choices and was supposed to be recognised as a more modern foundation for people to follow. However, what this marriage revolution brought to the modern Chinese society, was not only unprecedented freedom, finally being able to choose a partner for themselves and an extraordinary sense of romance and love, but it also brought with it, confusion, worry and disturbance. With an ever fast-growing market in China and recent decrease in numbers of marriage, the overall objective of this research is to allow us to develop a better understanding into the ideas set out by the Chinese communist party and whether arranged marriage was in fact a long term benefit or disadvantage to the current Chinese society of today. It will also provide research into other potential factors affecting this gradual decline in numbers, with elements such as the amount of impact a booming economy and higher education have on the people. With a long lasting tradition of repressive arranged marriages, and recent reports showing a staggering population of 249million unmarried young adults in urban cities, such as Shanghai, I have broken down clearly, the list of objectives I would like to achieve during this paper: 1)I would like to use this research paper to gain a more in depth understanding about this long lasting tradition in China, here the ideas originated from and the thoughts behind this, what were they trying to achieve? 2) I would like to find out, to what extent does exercising constant restraint on an individuals marriage freedom affect different sectors of Chinese society today, from small towns to the big cities. How have the old traditions affected the way people behave today towards marriage? 3) I would also like to analyse the affects of one of the worlds fastest growing economies on rate of marriage and whether the decline is generally more prominent in bigger cities. ) And finally gain any other insight as to other factors that could possibly be involved in the decreasing numbers of marriage, such as increase and improvement of a higher education and whether high gender imbalance means high marriage imbalance. The suggested research will consist of two main parts: The first stage will be to find and gather as many secondary resources to evaluate and uncover past and present marriage figures and any other useful graphs, diagrams, surveys journals and scholarly articles to find any indication of trends between other factors which may play an apparent part in the decline of marriage in China. The second stage will involve qualitative research to provide an in-depth, more personal outlook on possible underlying problems why this may be happening, and perhaps even gather other personal reasons from outside sources, that I have not yet come across myself, as to the pressures of marriage and why so many Chinese people in society today feel the need to marry a lot later in life, if at all. This will be done through interviews and group discussion with men and women raised both in the countryside and big cities. Although not a definite decision for my research, it would be interesting to conduct my own survey with a target audience of oth men and women born in different eras in China, to see if i can identify any correlation between age, place of birth, education and jobs. By the end of this research project I hope to achieve all my objectives which I have laid out above. Available documents from the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC) declare that China has a serious imbalance of gender, with about 26. 7 men per 24. 9 women, which has led to a similarly serious imbalance in the unmarried population for Chinese born in the seventies, eighties and nineties. The worst affected by the gender imbalance re Chinese born in the seventies, where there are currently 206 unmarried men for every 100 unmarried women. Those born in the eighties and nineties fare a bit better, although prominent imbalances still exists. Furthermore, as I mentioned previously about marriage rates between the countryside and bigger cities, according to these documents, in more modernised provinces and municipalities like Jiangsu, Shandong, Beijing and Shanghai the number of unmarried men and women are more closely balanced, leading me to believe that there is, in fact, a connection between job and marriage umbers which I would like to elaborate more on in my pa per. A large amount of work has been conducted already on the issue of the analysis of why both men and women choose to postpone marriage in China. As research shows, later marriages in China have become a growing social trend, with Chinese men postponing marriage on average by about 1. 4 years and women 1. 5. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s 2000 national census reported that the average marriage age of a male in China was 25. 3 years old and 23. 4 for women. However, the 2010 national census reported that these averages had in fact increased to 26. 7 for men and 24. for women. Providing evidence a definite increase. At a time where many Chinese people are driven to get promotions and are coming of age at a time where exploding wealth and expectations for material success are high, I was interested to see that a survey last year on Sohu. com, claimed that 73% of corespondents said home ownership was a necessity for marriage today, with an almost equal percentage saying they found it difficult to even buy a house, this therefore leads me to believe more so that pressures of expectations from future partners is so high, many people are put off from this.